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The European ALARA Network (EAN) has been created by the European Commission to further specific European research on topics dealing with optimization of all types of occupational exposure, as well as to facilitate the dissemination of good ALARA practices within all sectors of the European industry and research. CEPN (Centre d'étude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucléaire, France) took on the role of the Network Coordinator with PHE (Public Health England, UK) providing support. The key outputs were to be twice yearly Newsletters and an annual themed Workshop that was to provide recommendations to the EC and other stakeholders involved in radiation protection.

17th European ALARA Network workshop on "ALARA in emergency exposure situations"

17thEuropean ALARA Network Workshop [organized in collaboration with NERIS], Lisbon, Portugal, 15 – 17 May 2017

"ALARA in Emergency Exposure Situations "

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Aims and objectives

Emergency exposure situations can arise as a result of a nuclear accident, a malicious or terrorist act, or any other unexpected radiological event. It requires a quick response and sustainable countermeasures and remedial actions in order to avoid or reduce adverse short-term and long-term consequences. Radiation exposures can be received by the public, first responders, workers and volunteers engaged in the post-accident recovery.

The ICRP recommendations and European Basic Safety Standards – the bases for national regulations - re-emphasize the principle of optimisation (ALARA) as applying to emergency exposure situations. For the purpose of radiological protection, reference levels for emergency exposure situations should be set. More importantly, it is necessary to establish emergency plans based on an optimum protection strategy, resulting in more good than harm for the exposed people and the affected territories. In that perspective, lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident are of utmost importance.

The objectives of the workshop were:

  • To show, in particular from the experience of Fukushima accident, the challenges posed by the optimisation of exposures in emergency and post-accident situations;
  • To review the national arrangements for assessing, monitoring and mitigating the radiological consequences of an emergency, especially with regard to applying the ALARA principle to public and occupational exposures;
  • To review the arrangements for managing emergency doses to workers;
  • To review the arrangements for providing ALARA-based training for the different types of stakeholders who would be engaged in the emergency response and long-term recovery actions.

Programme and participants

The final programme and the list of participants can be accessed here.

As part of the programme, time has been devoted for discussions in working groups between participants. The working groups tackled the following issues:

  1. Can the ALARA principle by fully apply in Emergency Exposure Situations for the members of the public?
  2. Can the ALARA principle be fully apply in Emergency Exposure Situations for the occupationnaly exposed individuals?
  3. (two working groups) Predict the unpredictable. How to ensure emergency plans are optimal from a radiation protection point of view? How to act if the situation goes beyond prediction?


Session 1 - Setting the scene

Session 2 - Overview of Emergency Prepardness in Europe

Session 3 - Emergency and Response Management

Session 4 - The Post Accident Phase - Management of Radiological Consequences

Session 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations

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-- EAN 17th Workshop participants (IST-CTN, Bobadela, Portugal, May 2017) --


Issue 38 - September 2016

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You can access here the 38th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter (pdf, 4,7 Mo). Articles deal with:

  • Significant Radiological Events in France during 2014 in Industrial Radiography
  • The gammaPROX concept
  • The Role of EFNDT in Radiation Protection
  • ENETRAP III-Implications for Industrial Radiography?
  • Radiation Protection of a novel Radiotherapy System for the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  • On the Use of Thyroid Shielding in Dental Radiography : an Answer and a Survey
  • EAN activities : 17th Workshop on the Application of ALARA in Emergency Exposure Situations
We wish you a pleasant reading!

Issue 37 - February 2016

You can download here the 37thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 2 Mo).  

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Articles :

  1. The Radium Action Plan in Switzerland, Messrs. Nicolas STRITT, Sébastien BAECHLER, Christophe MURITH, Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland 

  2. The Use of Thyroid Shield in Dental Radiography, Mr. John HOLROYD, PUblic Health England, Leeds, United Kingdom

  3. Low Compliance with X-Rays Procedures, Mrs. Camilla LARSSON, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm, Sweden






EAN NORM launches its new website and announces its 8th Workshop

Please note that EANNORM Network has designed a new website. You may want to have a look at www.ean-norm.eu and explore it! 

Furthermore, the Network is happy to annouce the organization of it 8th EAN_NORM workshop, that will be held from 5 to 7 December 2016 in Stockholm. The announcement and further details can be found at http://ean-norm.eu/?page_id=96

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Issue 36 - February 2015

You can download here the 36thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 678 Ko).  

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Content :

  1. Results of the EAN Survey on the Regulatory Approach for the Radiological Protection of Aircraft Crew, Mr. Sylvain Andresz (CEPN), Mr. Pascal Croüail (CEPN)

  2. Industrial Radiography: Hand Injury from Exposure to X-Ray Beam (OTHEA incident)

  3. Radium Action Plan in Switzerland, Mr. Nicolas Stritt (OFSP) 

  4. This article could be yours, EAN Newsletter Editorial Board.


Publication of the EAN Strategic Agenda for the 2015 - 2020 period

The Strategic Agenda of the European ALARA Network for the 2015 - 2020 period has been elaborated by the Members in 2014 and is now published on the website (in the 'Presentation of EAN/EAN Strategic Plan' section). The Strategic Agenda reminds the general objectives of EAN and presents the objectives of the Network for the period and the work programme to fulfil it.

EAN Strategic Agenda 2015 - 2020 (pdf, 455 Kb)  


Issue 35 - October 2014

You can download here the 35thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 549 Ko).  

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Content :

  1. PET CT - How much is too much?, Dr. Martin O'Connel, Mater Misericordia University Hospital, Dublin

  2. How do you know you work ALARA? Mr. Sylvain Andresz (CEPN), Mrs. Karin Fritioff (Vattenfall AB)

  3. 15th EAN/5th EUTERP Workshop : Education and Training in Radiation Protection: Improving ALARA Culture, Rovinj, Croatia 7-9 May 2014 - Summary and Recommendations, Mr. Peter Shaw (PHE), Mr. Pascal Croüail (CEPN), Mr. Richard Paynter (SCK•CEN), Mrs Michèle Coeck (SCK•CEN) 

  4. This article could be yours, EAN Newsletter Editorial Board.


EAN NORM announces its 7th Workshop

Please note that EANNORM plans its 7th Workshop on "Disposal of NORM in EU Member States" and a Topical Day on "Building Materials". The Workshop is to be held from 2nd to 4th December 2014 in Vlissingen (the Netherlands). 

The 2nd annoucement (flyer) can be found here and the registration form downloaded here (.doc, 37 Ko - to be mailed to the Chairperson of the Organizing Committee). The template for abstract can be downloaded here (.doc, 24 Ko).

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How to test the effectiveness of training ? A practical solution

The 15th EAN workshop on "Improving ALARA Culture through Education and Training" was in particular focus on measuring the effectiveness of training.

Following their presentation during the workshop E. Grindrod and J. Stewart from Public Health England propose in this article an "untraditionnal" approach to test knowledge, application and competences of emergency responders at the end of their training event. The article deals with the advantages and disavantages of this approach and looks for areas of future development.

The article can be downladed here (pdf, 132 Ko).    


14th EAN Workshop on "ALARA in existing exposure situations"

14th European ALARA Network Workshop, Ireland 4-6 September 2012


 icon Download the 2nd announcement

The concept of “existing exposure situations” was introduced by ICRP in Publication No. 103 (2007), and is included in the revised European Basic Safety Standards Directive. It is defined as exposure situations that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken, such as those caused by natural background radiation and radioactive residues from past practices or events.  Examples include radon in dwellings and buildings with public access, building materials and management of contaminated areas from past practices and post-accidents. Other situations such as exposure from cosmic rays and NORMs may also be included.

Optimisation is the key radiation protection principle for existing exposure situations, although it is not always clear how to apply this in practice.  Consequently, the aim of the 14th EAN workshop is to focus on how the ALARA principle can be applied to the whole range of existing exposure situations.  The Workshop will consider the wider principles and strategies that might be adopted, as well as the specific methods for implementing ALARA in practice. 

This workshop will consist of presentations intended to highlight the main issues, and a significant part of the programme will be devoted to discussions within working groups.  From these discussions, participants will be expected to produce recommendations on ALARA in existing exposure situations addressed to relevant local, national and international stakeholders.

Working Group Topics

  • ALARA challenges and practicalities at the national and regional levels
  • Considerations in choosing reference levels
  • Economical, technical factors and endpoints of optimisation
  • Societal factors and stakeholders engagement

Radiation protection of aircraft crew

Between December 2010 and January 2012, EAN performed a survey about radiation protection of aircraft crew. The following questions were sent to the members of the network.

1. Is there a regulation concerning radiation protection requirements for aircraft crew in your country?
2. If yes:
  • What are the main requirements?
  • What are the means and tools used to assess aircrew's exposure?
  • Is there a specific dose criteria defined for aircraft crew?

3. Could you provide data on the number of aircrew exposed, maximum annual level of exposure, average annual level of exposure, etc.?

14 countries answered the request about radiation protection of aircraft crew: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Slovenia, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. There is not a regulation concerning radiation protection requirements for aircraft crew in Norway.

Download the results of the survey: icon Aircraft crew

Read more: Radiation protection of aircraft crew


Dose constraints

ERPAN (European Radiation Protection Authorities Network) carried out a survey in April 2010 on how dose constraints, as defined in the EU Directive are applied in the non-nuclear energy sector across Europe. The following questions were sent to the participants to the network.

  1. Does your country use dose constraints in the context of occupational exposures (non-nuclear sector)
  2. If so what are they called?
  3. Are occupational dose constraints mentioned in national legislation/regulations?
  4. If so, please provide a reference to the relevant regulations?
  5. Please provide (in English) the actual wording used in the regulations?
  6. For what industries, processes, tasks, types of workers – all workers? the most exposed workers? specific categories of workers? etc. – are dose constraints used?
  7. How are dose constraints used in practice?
  8. Why are dose constraints introduced?
  9. What are the benefits of introducing dose constraints?
  10. Who sets dose constraint (utilities or authorities)?
  11. How are dose constraints set e.g. for a set of sources or for individual sources?
  12. Are dose constraints “misused”, for example implicitly or explicitly as secondary limits (to dose limits)?
  13. Are dose constraints used as a regulatory instrument?
  14. Who manages performance against dose constraints and other occupational radiation protection criteria?
  15. In what context are dose constraints set: for sites (refers to design) or for tasks (refers to operation)?
  16. How are dose constraints fixed, implemented, and controlled in each of these cases?
  17. In practice, has enforcing (individual) dose constraints resulted in negative consequences (e.g. higher collective doses, increased costs, etc.)?
  18. What approaches have proven successful in discussing dose constraints between regulatory authorities and licensees?
  19. Have you any experience in balancing occupational radiation protection dose constraints with the management of other risks (e.g. industrial, chemical/biological safety issues)?

Answers from 11 countries were received: Belgium, France, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The detailed answers can be found in the Appendix 1 of the EGOE (Expert Group on Occupational Exposure of the CRPPH - Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health) report on dose constraints. icon EGOE case study 2

A presentation was made of this survey in the ICRP symposium on the International System of Radiological Protection held at Bethesda on October 26th to 28th. icon ICRP presentation on dose constraints


EAN Strategic Plan 2010-2015

For 1.5 years, the EAN Steering Group has worked on a 2010-2015 Strategic Plan for the network. This document describes the expected work of EAN during this period taking into account the future challenges for ALARA in Europe.

For more information you can consult the webpage dedicated to the EAN Strategic Plan.
You can also download the EAN Strategic Plan as a pdf document.


RELIR/OTHEA - Lessons learned from radiological incidents


HPA (the UK) and CEPN (France) have launched the RELIR-OTHEA mirror-website. RELIR/OTHEA is provided by a network of French and English radiation protection stakeholders, who have a joint interest in sharing feedback and experience from radiological incidents, in order to improve the protection of persons working with similar radiation sources. More generally, the aim is to encourage good practices (especially the implementation of the ALARA/ALARP principle) within different sectors - medical and veterinary, industrial, research and education sectors, etc.

The incidents reports are anonymous and have been selected on the basis of those which provide interesting and useful lessons, to help others prevent such incidents and/or mitigate the consequences.

OTHEA website (English)
RELIR website (French)