In this section, you will find the results of European surveys performed thanks to the European ALARA Network and Regional European and Central Asia Network.
- Delineation and access to regulated areas
- Radiation protection of Aircraft crew
- Dose constraints
- Radon exposure management
- The implementation of the European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 in national regulations
- The management of radioactively contaminated soils
- Potential exposures in nuclear installations
- The Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in Europe
- The management of radon exposure
Delineation and access to regulated areas
European requirements for radiological protection, especially work on transposing the new EURATOM Directive on the basic radiological protection standards, are currently being revised. The Direction générale du travail (DGT - General Directorate of Labour) and the Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire (ASN - Nuclear Safety Authority) therefore commissioned the Radiological Protection Standing Groups of experts (GPRAD and GPMED) to engage in a forward-looking debate on the delimitation of and access to regulated areas, within an ad hoc working group (called hereafter ‘Classification of Area WG’).
To fuel its debates, the ‘Classification of Area WG’ sought elements on international regulations and practices focusing on problem exposure situations in various areas of activity (nuclear, industrial, research, medical, transport and natural boosted). CEPN was entrusted with this study.
Radiation protection of aircraft crew
Between December 2010 and January 2012, EAN performed a survey about radiation protection of aircraft crew. The following questions were sent to the members of the network.
- What are the main requirements?
- What are the means and tools used to assess aircrew's exposure?
- Is there a specific dose criteria defined for aircraft crew?
3. Could you provide data on the number of aircrew exposed, maximum annual level of exposure, average annual level of exposure, etc.?
14 countries answered the request about radiation protection of aircraft crew: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Slovenia, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. There is not a regulation concerning radiation protection requirements for aircraft crew in Norway.
Download the results of the survey: Aircraft crew
ERPAN (European Radiation Protection Authorities Network) carried out a survey in April 2010 on how dose constraints, as defined in the EU Directive are applied in the non-nuclear energy sector across Europe. The following questions were sent to the participants to the network.
- Does your country use dose constraints in the context of occupational exposures (non-nuclear sector)
- If so what are they called?
- Are occupational dose constraints mentioned in national legislation/regulations?
- If so, please provide a reference to the relevant regulations?
- Please provide (in English) the actual wording used in the regulations?
- For what industries, processes, tasks, types of workers – all workers? the most exposed workers? specific categories of workers? etc. – are dose constraints used?
- How are dose constraints used in practice?
- Why are dose constraints introduced?
- What are the benefits of introducing dose constraints?
- Who sets dose constraint (utilities or authorities)?
- How are dose constraints set e.g. for a set of sources or for individual sources?
- Are dose constraints “misused”, for example implicitly or explicitly as secondary limits (to dose limits)?
- Are dose constraints used as a regulatory instrument?
- Who manages performance against dose constraints and other occupational radiation protection criteria?
- In what context are dose constraints set: for sites (refers to design) or for tasks (refers to operation)?
- How are dose constraints fixed, implemented, and controlled in each of these cases?
- In practice, has enforcing (individual) dose constraints resulted in negative consequences (e.g. higher collective doses, increased costs, etc.)?
- What approaches have proven successful in discussing dose constraints between regulatory authorities and licensees?
- Have you any experience in balancing occupational radiation protection dose constraints with the management of other risks (e.g. industrial, chemical/biological safety issues)?
Answers from 11 countries were received: Belgium, France, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The detailed answers can be found in the Appendix 1 of the EGOE (Expert Group on Occupational Exposure of the CRPPH - Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health) report on dose constraints. EGOE case study 2
A presentation was made of this survey in the ICRP symposium on the International System of Radiological Protection held at Bethesda on October 26th to 28th. ICRP presentation on dose constraints
Radon exposure management
Between September 2009 and January 2010, EAN performed a survey on the national management of radon exposure. The 5 following questions were sent to the participants to the network.
- Is there a specific radon policy in your country?
- If so, when was it implemented?
- Have action levels (ICRP 60) or reference levels (ICRP 103) been fixed? For workplaces? For domestic dwellings?
- How far is this policy implemented?
- We would also be interested in documentations related to this policy (even if it is not in English).
Download the results of the survey (pdf)
The Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in Europe
Diagnostic Reference Levels are values which are usually easy to measure and have a direct link with patient doses. They are therefore established to aid efficient dose management and to optimize patient doses. If such doses are found to exceed the corresponding reference dose, possible causes should be investigated and corrective action taken accordingly, unless the unusually high doses could be clinically justified.
Potential exposures in nuclear installations
This survey was carried out from October 2006 to January 2007 via the EAN Forum. The aim was to determine if and how the operator of a nuclear installations takes into acount, in the dose planning for a job, the occupational radiological incidents and mishaps. The questionnaire contained the following questions:
- If this is taken into account, does a specific methodology exist?
- Have you examples of scenario (biological shielding defaults, ventilation defaults, unplanned dose rate, fire, etc.), which have been used for these kinds of prevision?
- Is that planning required by the authority?
- Is there a dose criteria, above which an incident has to be reported to the authority?
Answers from 6 different countries have been received.
The management of radioactively contaminated soils
This survey was carried out from September to November 2006 via the EAN Forum. The aim was to establish the state of the regulations concerning the management of radioactively contaminated soils due to activities related to facilities from the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e. nuclear power plant, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities, excluding uranium mines and mining sites). The questionnaire contained the following questions:
- What is the regulatory framework within your country regarding the management of radioactively contaminated soils?
- Are there any release criteria (in terms of individual or collective dose, Bq/g...) for unrestricted and/or restricted use of such a site?
- What are these criteria and how are they used?
- Do you have any example of such a contaminated site which was finally released from regulatory control after remediation?
Answers from 15 different countries have been received.
The implementation of the European Directives 96/29 and 97/43
The European ALARA Network has considered that it would be useful to make a specific survey in order to evaluate the dissemination of the justification, limitation and optimisation principles rhough Europe. A questionnaire was prepared by the EAN Newsletter Editorial Board and sent to all EAN (18 countries) and RECAN (22 countries) national contact persons.
Such a survey was first undertaken in 2001 and its results were published in the ALARA Newsletter issue N°9. However, at that time, it was mainly limited to EAN member countries. Since then, the enlargement of the EU has led to several new implementations of the European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 that are directly inspired by ICRP N°60 Recommandations . In addition, some non-member states are using the IAEA Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection  that are also based on the Recommendations made by ICRP in 1990.