Feed back experience shows that there is in Europe a need for Workshops which are neither a big congress nor a collection of working groups with lots of different meetings, but which over a few days provide a forum for a few dozen experts to exchange feedback experience and to identify problems that need further research or development. Therefore the Network has organised and will continue to organise such type of Workshop once a year.
The subject is selected in order to cover domains where the Network Steering Committee Group estimates that many improvements in terms of ALARA implementation may be found. All papers are invited presentations. To promote discussions, appropriate time is made available for work in small groups and the number attending the workshop is limited to a few dozens experts. The language of the Workshops is English.
At the end of each Workshop the chairpersons and the working groups propose to the participants some recommendations to the EC and national regulatory bodies and other stakeholders corresponding to the feedback from the sessions of the Workshop. These recommendations are validated by the Network Steering Committee Group and send to the Commission and to other appropriate stakeholders.
- "ALARA and Decommissioning", Saclay, France, December 1997
- "Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research", Chilton, UK, November 1998
- "Managing Internal Exposure", Neuherberg, Germany, November 1999
- "Management of Occupational Radiological and Non-radiological Risks: Lessons to be Learned", Antwerp, Belgium, November 2000
- "Industrial Radiography: Improvements in Radiation Protection", Rome, Italy, October 2001
- "Occupational Exposure Optimisation in the Medical and the Radiopharmaceutical Sectors", Madrid, Spain, October 2002
- "Decommissiong of Installations and Site Remediation", Arnhem, The Netherlands, October 2003
- "Occupational Radiological Protection Control through Inspection and Self-assessment", Uppsala, Sweden, September 2004
- "Occupational Exposure to Natural Radiation", Augsburg, Germany, October 2005
- "Experience and new Developments in Implementing ALARA in Occupational, Patient and Public Exposures", Prague, Czech Republic, 12-15 September 2006
- "ALARA in Radioactive Waste Management", Athens, Greece, 9-11 April 2008
- "ALARA issues arising for Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and Security Screening Devices", Vienna, Austria, 21-23 October 2009
- "ALARA and the Medical Sector", Oscarborg Fortress, Norway, 7-10 June 2011
- "ALARA in existing exposure situations", Dublin Castle, Ireland, 4-6 September 2012
- "Improving ALARA Culture through Education and Training", Rovinj, Croatia, 7-9 May 2014
- "ALARA in Industrial Radiography", Bern, Switzerland, 14-16 March 2016
- "ALARA in Emergency Exposure Situations", Lisbon, Portugal, 15-17 May 2017
- "ALARA for Decommissioning and Site Remediation", Marcoule, France, 11-13 March 2019
- "Innovative ALARA Tools", Athens, Greece, 27-29 November 2019
16th European ALARA Network Workshop, Berne, Switzerland, 14 – 16 March 2016
"ALARA in Industrial Radiography - How can it be improved?"
Aims and objectives
Industrial radiography (for non-destructive testing (NDT)) using gamma and X-ray sources is a long-established and widespread practice. A key radiation protection principle is optimisation, to ensure that the radiation exposure of radiography workers and other persons is As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). In 2001, in Rome, the 5th EAN Workshop specifically considered ALARA in industrial radiography. It was concluded that ALARA was not always being achieved, and improvements in radiography equipment, working procedures, training and safety culture were recommended. Since then, industrial radiography has remained an area of concern in radiation protection, due to the levels of radiation exposure received and, in particular, the number and magnitude of accidental exposures. Consequently, EAN has decided to re-visit this topic.
The objectives of the workshop are:
- To review the conclusions and recommendations of the 5th EAN workshop, held in Rome in 2001, and determine whether any real improvements have been made (see link in the right column).
- To ask what else might be done to improve radiation safety in industrial radiography and ensure that exposures are ALARA.
The workshop consisted of presentations (oral and posters) intended to highlight the main issues, and a significant part of the program was devoted to discussions within working groups. From these discussions, participants are expected to produce recommendations on ALARA in industrial radiography, which are addressed to relevant local, national and international stakeholders.
As part of the programme, time has been devoted for discussions between participants (divided in four working groups). The working groups have tackled issues such as :
- Radiography equipment: can we make it safer (WG1)?
- Learning from radiography accidents: how do we stop them from happening again (WG2)?
- Training and Safety Culture: how can these be improved (WG3)?
- The ALARA process in radiography: setting suitable dose and risk constraints (WG4).
Session 1 - Setting the scene
- EAN and ALARA in Industrial Radiography (684 kB) — F. Vermeersch, EAN
- The Role of EFNDT in Industrial Radiography (1078 kB) — M. Purschke, EFNDT
- Application of the Commission Recommendations: Development of User Focused Reports (531 kB) — K. Cho, ICRP
- Industrial Radiography and the ISEMIR Project (750 kB) — R. Van Sonsbeek, Applus RTD
- The Regulatory Inspector's Perspective (684 kB) — H. Synnott, EPA Ireland
- Industrial Radiographic Testing in Public Places in Switzerland (2653 kB) — D. Grütter, SVS
- The Client's perspective: Radiation Protection on EDF NPP sites (472 kB) — E. Carreau, EDF
Session 2 - Industrial Radiography Equipment
- Gamma-Radiography: State of the Art or Unjustified Activity? (2231 kB) — C. Kaps, EFNDT
- Reducing the Size of Radiography Controlled Areas (500 kB) — C. Bergeron, IS Groupe
- Dose Reduction by Digital X-Rays Detectors (2080 kB) — B. Redmer, BAM
- Industrial Radiography Equipment Maintenance (784 kB) — T. Frühwirth, B. Wellens, NES
- Gamma Radiography Sources and Equipment - Design Improvements and Industry Adoption (415.5 kB) (narrative, pdf 75 kB) — M. Fuller, ISSPA
- Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO) (1915 kB) — W. A. Truppa, Argentinian NRA
Session 3 - Learning from Industrial Radiography Incidents
- Annual Reports of Incidents/Accidents in Radiography in France (1530 kB) — B-M Ayadi, A. Cordelle, IRSN
- Radiography Incidens in Germany (716 kB) — M. Sonntag, SGD
- Radiography Incidents in Norway (957 kB) — S. Øvergaard, NRPA
- Gamma Radiography Source Recovery Equipment (1940 kB) — S. Buechi, SUVA
- Radiography Incident in Belgium - Recovery of a Co-60 Source in a Foundry (2983 kB) — R. Berden, FANC
- Radiography Incident in France (Feursmetal) (650 kB) — A. Dubouchet, IRSN
Session 4 - Education and Training and ALARA Culture
- OTHEA Lessons-Learned from Industrial Radiography Incidents (326 kB) — P. Shaw, PHE
- RP Training for Radiographers in Germany (384 kB) — A. Steege, DGZfP
- Web-based Inspections in Industrial Radiography (491 MB) — B. H. Knutsen, NRPA
- ENETRAP: European Guidance on RPE and RPO - Implications for Industrial Radiography? (168 kB) — A. Schmitt-Hannig, BfS
- The Management of Industrial Radiography Incidents (742 kB) — E. Carreau, EDF
Session 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
- Report from Working Group 1 - Radiography Equipment (85 kB)
- Report from Working Group 2 - Radiography Equipment (50 kB)
- Report from Working Group 3 - Learning from Incidents (25 kB)
- Report from Working Group 4 - Learning from Incidents (85 kB)
- Report from Working Group 5 - Training and Safety Culture (54 kB)
- Report from Working Group 6 - The ALARA Process in Industrial Radiography (70 kB)
- Final Conclusions and Recommendations (385 kB) — P. Shaw, PHE
- Case Study of an Accidental Exposure to X-Rays in Industrial Radiography (8,5 Mo) — P. Fias, P. Froment, K. Persyn, AV Controlatom
- Radiation Protection for Industrial Radiography at CERN (4,8 Mo) — C. Adorisio, N. Conan, V. Tromel, HSE-RP CERN